If you are legally authorized to work and you lose your job, you may be eligible for unemployment insurance. Details about obtaining unemployment insurance vary by state, and you can learn more here. The federal government also provides helpful information about unemployment insurance.
In addition, some non-citizens may be eligible for other benefits, such as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program), nonemergency Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). You can learn more about the legal requirements for such benefits here. To get help obtaining such aid, you might start by reaching out to a local non-profit that assists immigrants. Such organizations might be able to point you in the right direction.